Mackerel refers to approximately 30 species of pelagic fish found in temperate and tropical waters worldwide that are members of the Scombridae family. It is highly regarded for its delectable flavor and nutritional value. Moreover, mackerel is a valuable commercial and recreational fish. Because of these advantages, it is vulnerable to overfishing and other threats, which have reduced the fish population in some areas.

To help you understand this fish that typically lives outside the coastal areas (the pelagic zone) better, we will look at the appearance, habitat, diet, reproduction, threats, and exciting facts about mackerel in this article. So, whether you are a fish enthusiast or simply curious about this fascinating fish, keep reading, and you’ll find everything you need to know about mackerel.


Mackerel is a fast-swimming fish with a streamlined body and a torpedo-shaped body. It also has a bluish-green back, silver sides, and a row of black spots down the center of its body. Moreover, it has a silvery-white lower body, a small head with large eyes, and a deeply forked tail fin.

Mackerel have an elongated, streamlined body that is covered in small, silvery scales
Mackerel have an elongated, streamlined body that is covered in small, silvery scales

In most cases, you’ll see mackerel in schools. So, they are social beings.


As previously stated, mackerel can be found worldwide in temperate and tropical waters. It is, however, a migratory fish that travels great distances in search of food and suitable spawning grounds. As a result, you can easily spot stocks migrating in large schools along the coast.

According to research, mackerel can be found in the Atlantic Ocean from Norway to South Africa. They can be seen migrating from Japan to Australia in the Pacific Ocean. If you have been at the coast for a while, you can witness that you can find them in coastal and offshore waters.


Have you ever heard that a mackerel is a predatory fish? Yes, it is a predatory fish that feeds on small marine animals such as crustaceans, squid, and small fish like herring and anchovy.

Mackerel is a fast-swimming fish that hunts near the ocean’s surface and deeper waters. As a result, it can rely on speed and agility, sharp teeth, and a streamlined body to catch its prey fast.

Mackerel, in turn, provides food for larger predatory fish, marine mammals, and seabirds. As part of the marine food chain, mackerel plays an essential role in maintaining the balance of ocean ecosystems.


Mackerel is a pelagic spawner. What does this imply? If you’re wondering, it spawns in open water rather than near shore or sea floor. Spawning occurs during the spring and summer, and females can lay up to 500,000 eggs per season.

This is how it works. Adult mackerel congregate in large schools in shallow coastal waters during the spawning season. Female mackerel lay hundreds of thousands to millions of buoyant eggs that float near the water’s surface.

The sperm from the male mackerel fertilizes the eggs, and the fertilized eggs develop into larvae that hatch after a few days. The larvae are then carried along by ocean currents, feeding on plankton until maturity.


Mackerel live for about 10-20 years and reach sexual maturity between the ages of 2 and 5 years old, depending on the species. As previously stated, they produce millions of offspring.  However, many do not survive to adulthood due to predation, disease, and other factors.

Besides, mackerel is a popular commercial and recreational fish, meaning it is overfished in some areas and preserved. Some are covered with ice and used at the appropriate time. So, the high demand for mackerel has resulted in a population decline.

Mackerel are an important commercial fishery species, and their populations have been overfished in some regions
Mackerel are an important commercial fishery species, and their populations have been overfished in some regions

Unsustainable fishing practices like using large fishing nets during the spawning season have played a significant role in the decrease. Using mackerel as fishing bait or lures might also cause severe problems in the ocean due to an imbalance in the food chain. So, it is necessary to create artificial fish baits that are not preserved with ice.

Changes in ocean currents and temperatures also affect mackerel distribution and abundance, making climate change a threat to mackerel populations.

Facts About Mackerel

  1. Mackerel is a migratory fish that can travel thousands of miles for food and suitable spawning grounds.
  2. Mackerel is a fast swimmer, reaching up to 60 miles per hour.
  3. Mackerel is an essential food source for many people worldwide, and it can also be used as bait.
  4. Mackerel is high in omega-3 fatty acids, which are critical for heart health and lowering the risk of certain diseases.
  5. Mackerel is frequently canned or smoked and used in various dishes, including salads, sandwiches, and sushi.


What kind of fish is mackerel?

Mackerel is a generic term for several species of fish in the Scombridae family, including tuna, bonito, and Spanish mackerel. Atlantic Mackerel (Scombrus scombrus), Pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus), Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), King mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla), and Cero mackerel (Scomberomorus regalis) are the most common species consumed as food.

What are the potential health benefits of eating mackerel?

A mackerel diet is high in protein, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins B12 and D, selenium, and other nutrients. Some people eat mackerel for its potential health benefits, such as improved heart health, reduced inflammation, and improved brain function. It is important to remember, however, that a healthy and balanced diet includes a variety of foods from various food groups.

Is mackerel a good fish to eat?

Yes, as previously stated, mackerel is considered a healthy fish. However, it is useful to note that it can be high in mercury, a toxic substance that can accumulate in fish and cause health problems if consumed in large quantities. As a result, mackerel consumption should be limited. More importantly, choosing sustainably sourced mackerel will help to reduce the environmental impact.

What is the size of mackerel?

The size of mackerel mainly varies according to species. Atlantic Mackerel, for example, can grow to be 17-18 inches (43-46 cm) long and weigh up to 2 pounds (1 kg). On the other hand, Pacific Mackerel can grow to be 12-14 inches (30-36 cm) long and weigh up to 1.5 pounds (0.7 kg).
The size of your mackerel can also be determined by its location and fishing methods. Some populations may be smaller or larger than the typical ranges we’ve shared here.

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