Oil spills cause a significant amount of damage to the environment, wildlife, and local economies. The oil may pollute ecosystems, upset food chains, and choke aquatic plants and animals.
When a liquid hydrocarbon from petroleum is spilled into the environment, often in the Ocean, it is referred to as an “oil spill.” Marine oil spills are defined as; Oil spills that discharge oil into the Ocean or coastal waterways. However, spills on land are also possible.
By fouling beaches, marshes, and estuaries and harming sectors like fishing and tourism, oil spills may also cause harm to coastal communities. One liter of oil may pollute one million liters of water; therefore, a small oil spill can result in considerable environmental detriment. The harm brought on by spills lasts for decades, and cleanup attempts can be expensive, time-consuming, and unable to remove all of the oil that has been spilled.
Gulf War Oil Spill
Location: Persian Gulf
Oil spill quantity: 11 million barrels
The Gulf War oil leak was one of the worst environmental disasters ever caused by human activity. Iraq deliberately discharged oil into the Persian Gulf during the Persian Gulf War in 1991 to delay the coalition forces that were pursuing them.
Both onshore oil wells and offshore oil terminals leaked the oil. Most of the oil was released from the Sea Island oil port in Kuwait and the Mina al-Ahmadi and Mina al-Bakr oil terminals in Iraq. The Persian Gulf received an estimated 11 million barrels of oil.
The nature and fauna in the area suffered immensely as a result of the oil spill. The oil damaged the habitats of several marine species, including fish, shellfish, dolphins, and sea turtles, and it blanketed hundreds of square kilometers of the Persian Gulf.
Additionally, the nearby coral reefs and mangroves were destroyed or severely harmed by the oil. As a result of the oil, several beaches in the area were closed to the public and covered in oil, impacting the local tourism business.
Thousands of employees and hundreds of ships were part of the major cleanup operation. Despite these attempts, up to 30% of the oil leaked is thought to still be in the Persian Gulf today.
Location: Gulf of Mexico
Oil spill quantity: 4.9 million barrels
The British Petroleum (BP) oil spill, commonly known as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, happened in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010. An explosion and associated fire on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, which was leased by BP and owned and operated by Transocean, resulted in the BP oil disaster. 11 people were killed, and 17 others were hurt in the incident. The wellhead on the ocean floor continued to spew oil into the Gulf for 87 days after the rig collapsed two days later.
It was the greatest unintentional maritime oil disaster in history, with 4.9 million barrels of oil spilled into the Gulf. Along with areas of Texas and the eastern coast of Mexico, the oil impacted the shores of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. The spill caused significant damage to the local fishing, tourism, and marine life sectors.
Due to a lack of safety precautions and an ineffective reaction, BP received harsh criticism for handling the disaster. It was also determined that BP was principally accountable for the leak. Regarding the spill, the firm consented to pay nearly $20 billion in penalties and compensation. For their involvement in the catastrophe, several Transocean personnel were also accused of manslaughter.
Ixtoc 1 Oil Well
Location: Gulf of Mexico
Oil spill quantity: 3.3 million barrels
Ixtoc 1 was an oil well situated in the Gulf of Mexico’s Bay of Campeche. Pemex, the state-owned oil company of Mexico, owned and ran it. The well blew up on June 3, 1979, resulting in a significant oil leak that sustained over a year.
One of the biggest oil disasters in history, the Gulf of Mexico received approximately 140 million gallons (3.3 Mn barrels) of crude oil. The blowout was brought on by a malfunction in the blowout preventer, a device meant to close the oil well in a disaster. On March 23, 1980, the well was finally sealed off, but not before severe harm had been done to the surrounding ecology and fishing economy.
The Ixtoc 1 oil leak serves as a reminder of the possible risks involved with offshore drilling and the need to take suitable precautions.
Location: Caribbean Sea
Oil spill quantity: 1.8 million barrels
The significant oil spill in 1979 involved the crude oil ship Atlantic Empress. The Ship collided with the Aegean Captain on July 19 of that year, causing a significant oil spill in the Caribbean Sea. The oil spill is regarded as one of the worst Oil spills in history, significantly damaging the ecosystem.
When the catastrophe occurred, the Ship carried around 260,000 tons of crude oil, and approximately 79 million gallons (1.8 Mn barrels) of oil leaked into the water. The 27 crew members perished in the disaster, while marine life and coastal ecosystems suffered significant harm.
The lengthy and expensive cleanup and restoration operations persisted for several months. It was found that human error—specifically, inadequate communication between the two ships caused the catastrophe.
Nowruz Field Platform
Location: Persian Gulf
Oil spill quantity: 35 million barrels
The Nowruz Field is an oil field in the Persian Gulf, close to the Iraqi-Iran border, with an estimated resource of around 35 billion barrels of oil. It is one of the largest oil fields in the Persian Gulf and is controlled by the National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC). At the Nowruz Field, a significant oil spill occurred in January 2001. The catastrophe was caused by a blowout of one of the oil wells, which resulted in a substantial discharge of crude oil into the Persian Gulf. The wellhead equipment malfunction that caused the rupture enabled oil to flow at tremendous pressure.
Chemical dispersants were utilized in the cleanup procedure to disperse the oil and remove it from the surface. Despite these efforts, the cleaning was slow and challenging since the oil had spread across a vast region and had impacted far-off places that were hard to reach.
Containing the oil leak and cleaning up the impacted regions took many months, and the cleanup’s overall cost was projected to be close to $500 million.
One of the most significant environmental catastrophes to hit the Persian Gulf was the Nowruz Field oil leak emphasizes the need for enhanced safety protocols and preparedness for emergencies in the oil and gas sector.
Location: Coast of Angola
Oil spill quantity: 1.2 million barrels
ABT Summer, an oil tanker, encountered an explosion on May 28, 1991, about 700 nautical miles off the coast of Angola. The tanker caught fire and released roughly 51 million gallons (1.2 million barrels) of oil into the water.
The catastrophe resulted in oil slicks covering over 80 square kilometers. Five of the 32 crew members died after the tanker sank after burning for three days.
Because the disaster occurred on high seas, it is believed that the bulk of the oil gushed from the Ship was dispersed, minimizing its detrimental impact on the marine ecology.
Which oil spill is the largest?
Nowruz field oil spill is the largest oil spill, with a spill value of 35 million barrels.
Which oil spill results in the highest human casualties?
Atlantic Empress resulted in the death of 27 crew members.
Which oil spill impact lasts even today?
The Gulf war oil spill, which occurred deliberately, had an impact that can be found for years and years later.
Which oil spill is considered the worst in history?
The Exxon Valdez oil spill is considered the worst oil spill in history, resulting in the death of 253,572 animals and birds.